- the hardest and at the same time the rarest natural mineral
- formed by the only, the most common element in nature - carbon in crystalline form
- It is usually formed during volcanic activity, where high temperature and pressure are ensured for its formation
Each diamond is unique and has specific properties that determine its value. In the middle of the 20th century, the American Society of Gemology (GIA) created a globally accepted quality assessment standard known as 4C. Under this abbreviation are the words:
4. Carat weight
A chemically pure and structurally perfect diamond has no color, and its value is higher. In most cases, however, there are chemical impurities in it, which cause its coloration, so diamonds occur in various color shades. Many are so delicate that they are unrecognizable to a layman. However, they cause a lower diamond price.
Finding a perfectly colorless diamond is very rare in nature.
The color scale of classic white diamonds is determined on a scale from D to Z.
- D is an entirely colorless, extremely rare diamond
- diamonds in the G-J color scale are most often used in jewellery i.e., almost colorless
- diamonds with the Z color have a yellow to brown color that is recognizable even to the layman
However, this scale does not refer to the so-called "fancy color," i.e., colored diamonds in shades such as green, blue, pink, and black.
Clarity is affected by:
- Inclusions - internal irregularities in the crystal structure, trapped tiny crystals, cavities, cracks, graininess, turbidity, and others
- Defects - external pits, scratches, excess facets, uncut parts, or burns
The assessment of cleanliness consists of determining the number, size, and location of these defects and how they affect the overall appearance. The less inclusions and caries the diamond has, the brighter it is. However, the clarity of the diamond is also affected by the size, location, and visibility of these defects.
The cut of a diamond defines its proportions, luster and symmetry. Thanks to it, the light that falls on the diamond is reflected and refracted, thus creating an unmistakable spark. Out of the 4C's, the cut is considered the most important because it determines the quality and appearance of the diamond. The final cut of the diamond will affect its beauty and value. Proper cutting can eliminate or refine the visibility of natural diamond defects - caries and inclusions.
Most popular diamond shapes:
The best known, most popular and most used is the brilliant round cut, which gives the diamond a high shine and sparkle.
4. Carat weight
The unit of measure for a diamond's weight is the carat. 1 carat = 0.2 g. Mark: ct. A classic diamond with a brilliant-cut, weighing 1 carat, has a diameter of approximately 6.5 mm. However, the price of a diamond does not increase in proportion to its weight. Large diamonds are rare, so a 2-carat diamond is more expensive than two one-carat diamonds. The larger the diamond, the cleaner it should be and with a more perfect cut.